Eye on South Africa: trends in broadcasting.

Broadcasting in South Africa has undergone radical changes in the

past few years. A primary goal of the new government was to reregulate

broadcasting so that previously sidelined communities could own and

operate radio and TV services as well as provide previously neglected

audiences with programs suited to their requirements and reflecting

their cultures.

The Independent Broadcast Authority (IBA) was charged with monitoring

the radio and TV industry and establishing policies for the regulation

of broadcasting and the granting of new television and radio licenses.

Prior to the allocation of frequencies. the IBA contended that the

state-owned SABC, which previously functioned on a commercial as well as

a public broadcaster basis. should shed its commercial radio stations

and take on the sole role of public broadcaster. Consequently, in 1996

the SABC relaunched its three television channels and sold its six

commercial radio stations to private, primarily black-controlled


The Terrestrial TV Ground

The relaunch of the SABC's three terrestrial channels realigned

the channels not only in terms of program content but in terms of

geographical coverage.

SABC1 is an entertainment channel that broadcasts in the Zulu, Xhosa

and English languages during primetime. It also accommodates the minor

African languages isiNdebele and siSwati. SABC1, which reaches major

urban areas nationwide, is the second largest channel. In primetime,

SABC2 broadcasts in English, Afrikaans, Setswana, Sesotho and Sepedi,

and provisions have been made for the Xitsonga and Tshivenda languages.

This channel, the largest of the three, is available across most of the

country, although some rural areas cannot yet receive the terrestrial

signal and rely on the Ku-band signal from the PAS 4 satellite. SABC3

broadcasts exclusively in English and offers domestic and international

programs. The smallest of the three channels, SABC3 can only be picked

up terrestrially in Johannesburg, Cape Town, Durban, Port Elizabeth and

East London, although it is available nationally on the PAS 4 satellite.

To date, no private terrestrial commercial television license exists,

although hearings from applicants are to be heard in the next few

months. There are currently only three challengers for the national

commercial license: Free-to-Air, Station for the Nation and Channel Six.

The latter, however, is likely to concentrate on the regional

license.The successful applicants are expected to begin broadcasting by

June 1997.

IBA Regulations

All broadcasters are regulated by the IBA. Regulations include

stipulations concerning what percentage of total programming should be

local; restrictions on cross-ownership; and affirmative action (a

company's staff must include a certain percentage of blacks, and

blacks must be represented at management level).

The public broadcaster SABC must air 50 percent local content. For

commercial broadcasters, the percentage is significantly less.

Programming Trends

The problem with local production and increased local content quotas

is that local production costs are very high. It currently costs between

$1,300 and $2,173 per minute to produce a program locally, while the

average cost of an imported program is $6,000 per hour.

The SABC channels' Institution of Commissioning Editors has

addressed the high costs of local production by allocating funds to

assist independent producers. Commissioning editors can, on their own,

grant fees of up to $10,900; program managers, up to $54,000; channel

heads, up to $163,000; the CEOs of the channels, up to $435,000; and the

Group executive, up to $870,000. Larger grants have to be approved by

the SABC board.

The change in programming on the SABC channels, however, has led to a

drop in advertising revenues. In an attempt to broaden the source of its

revenues, SABC recently launched the satellite TV service AstraSat.

The Satellite Solution

Soon to become an independent division under the SABC banner,

AstraSat is expected to provide profits that will help fund SABC.

AstraSat currently offers, in analog format, six TV channels (movies,

sports, music, news and information, general DSTV Installers Johannesburg entertainment and family

entertainment). AstraSat is negotiating to place seven additional

channels on the PAS 7 satellite, which is due to be launched early this

year. After AstraSat launched, the service was criticized for choosing

analog over digital technology. Gert Claassen, CEO of SABC operations

and head of AstraSat, explained the decision: "Not all TV

households are rich and we need technology to address these markets. It

is not necessarily the most up-to-date technology that works for

us." Unlike the privately held pay service M-Net, which is marketed

to high-income groups, AstraSat aims to make satellite channels

available to a wider audience. This is possible with analog technology

because analog equipment is significantly cheaper than digital


Digital satellite television was launched in South Africa in November

1995 by Orbicom, the satellite service provider for M-Net and

MultiChoice. According to Gerdus van Eeden, an Orbicom engineer

specializing in satellite and digital technology," DSTV was a first

not only for South Africa but for Africa and is also one of the first

MPEG-2 DVB-S direct-to-home systems in the world."

The launch of the PAS 7 satellite will allow Orbicom to deliver new

technology to MultiChoice and African DSTV subscribers and will allow

MultiChoice to add more channels to its digital bouquet. Claassen

believes that South Africa will soon "leapfrog" over cable

technology and become a predominantly multimedia country.

Meanwhile, Uplink Network, a new privately held satellite TV service,

is expected to be in service by the middle of 1997. Having completed a

$200 million deal with Scientific Atlanta, Uplink Network hopes to offer

a subscription fee considerably lower than those of AstraSat and

MultiChoice. Uplink Network's CEO, Craig Kinsman, said,

"We're offering an entertainment alternative, with all seven

of our channels slanted towards programming that's free of

violence, sex scenes and foul language? The bouquet includes a general

family entertainment channel; a Christian lifestyle channel; a sports

channel; the BSkyB News service; a European language channel

broadcasting to the Portuguese, Italian, Greek, German and Jewish

communities; an interactive learning service channel; and a business


South Africa TV Data

Average Cost of Local Production: $104,000 per hour Average Cost of

Imported Programs: $6,000 per hour Total Population: 41,237,000 Total

Color TV Ownership: 41.4 percent (3,445,000 TV HH) Total Black and White

TV Ownership: 23.1 percent (1,923,000 TV HH) Total SABC Viewers: 58.3

percent Total M-Net Viewers: 10.9 percent Total Satellite Dish Ownership: 0.3 percent (26,000 TV HH) Total VCR Ownership: 18.7 percent

(1,553,000 TV HH)

Vision Katleho Foundation Strikes Again At Newgate College of Education in Parktown, Johannesburg

You are Invited to share in the experience as our friends in Media, Sport, Entertainment, Property Development, I.T, Fashion, Business, Education and Government - all of whom are assisting with the day.

The event will have publicity coverage from a local news paper, a national magazine and the national broadcaster so you're welcome to bring some branded articles (should you be donating as corporate/company representative) or your own business as one of our appreciated donors.

The events of the day are set to start at 11am. We'd love for you to please come around this time, 11am, with hopes of wrapping up by 3pm.

Thank you again for the generous donation, we know it will be greatly appreciated by the children.

Please feel free to revert back via mail or telephone should you need further clarity about anything concerning the day.

The Investigative Team at Vision Katleho Foundation have earmarked the Newgate College of Education in Parktown, Johannesburg as their next beneficiary. Tears were shed upon visiting the school. Duma Sandile-Mboni Chairman of the Foundation, Sylvia Kgoadi, MD and Founder of the Foundation were moved by the appalling conditions that they witnessed first-hand.

After their successful event on this year's Mandela Day where they donated shoes and jerseys to a less privileged primary school in Tshepisong, JHB West and the event was broadcast on SABC 1 and on Dstv.

Subsequently, Vision Katleho Foundation have secured a venue and fixed the 29th November to hold their Event/Fundraising campaign for the Newgate College of Education which will also be broadcast on Kids News on SABC TV. The reason for the urgency is because the students finish writing on the 28th November and the Foundation yearns to bring some relief and comfort to their disadvantaged students.

Vision Katleho Foundation and their Team will converge on the school to assist to the best of their ability. Newgate Educational College accommodates learners from grade 8 to 12. Most of these learners hail from Alexandra, Hillbrow, Soweto and Yeoville and the majority of students are from poor families and child-headed households. The situation at the school is so bad that they use shacks as classes and at times, teachers don't get remunerated for months on end, just to mention a few of the school's challenges. SABC will be on the spot to broadcast this event on Live TV.

Thus far, they have managed to collect 120 much needed sanitary pads for the 100 girls. We hereby request any assistance from your esteemed organization with EITHER:

PA System

Catering (For Lunch) approximately 120 heads

Gift Bags (Deodorants, soaps, toothbrushes, gifts, and such likes)

Support (Any kind of support including financial)

However, any form of assistance will be greatly appreciated! You are welcome to bring your promotional material on the day and we will grant you an opportunity of an interview with SABC TV.

With increased educational opportunities and recognition that their voices count, girls and young women have more opportunity than ever to be problem solvers and contribute to building a more sustainable and safe world for everybody. But girls and young women still face many challenges related to gender and often have to reconcile their own dreams with expectations of what they "should be". Some of these challenges are sometimes as a result of "what happens at home" which turns to make them feel worthless, defeated and demotivated throughout their lives or also leaving a permanent scar of failure in them.

Conversing With A Girl Child summit will be an annual summit where we gather girls from various disadvantaged high schools to converse with them about major challenges they are faced with from home, school to the streets and come up with solutions for and with them as they will be part of the conversation throughout the conference.

The objective of this event:

To share their powerful story and journey

To empower

To motivate

To give hope

To build confidence and self awareness

To impart skills, experience and knowledge

In good times and bad, we know that people give because you meet needs, not because you have needs. - Kay Sprinkel Grace

Sylvia Kgoadi, Founder and Managing Director of Katleho Foundation says " We don't work in the non-profit sector, we work in the "for-change" sector! We look forward to your much anticipated support in joining our mission to making a difference in the lives of people wherever we go".

About The Vision Katleho Foundation:

The mission of the foundation is to assist disadvantaged youth and children in various communities by providing skills, mentorship, leadership, academic and social developmental support. We recognise the multiple challenges facing less privileged children and aim to support their future prospects. Our vision is to create a socially and economically empowered foundation for the youth in our communities and as far as possible as we can reach.

Our mission is to ensure that all projects and services are executed with the highest quality and within agreed-upon scope, time and cost parameters.

Contact Information:

Sylvia Kgoadi : +27 83 361 0528


Members of The Vision Katleho Foundation

SYLVIA KGOADI - Founder & Managing Director | DUMA-SANDILE MBONI - Chairperson

PHILANI EUGENE NGCOBO - Communication Specialist | PRIYA PILLAY - Project Organiser & Secretary | FEMI KOYA - Project Manager

THABO KEKANA - Creative Director | DONALD PILLAI - Marketing Manager/Specialist

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Cai Guo-Qiang Plays With Fire

The artist Cai Guo-Qiang was trained in stage design at the Shanghai Theater Academy. But while living in Japan from 1986 to 1995, he explored the properties of gunpowder in his drawings, an examination that eventually led to his experimentation with explosives on a massive scale, and ultimately to the development of his signature explosion events.

Restrained Violence: Rainbow: Project for Extraterrestrials No. 25, realized at Tribune Hall, Johannesburg Power Station, South Africa, 1995. (Takashi Shinkawa/Cai Studio)

Cai incorporates temporal and spatial dynamics in both the subject and the creative process of his explosion events, art installations, and gunpowder drawings.

The spontaneity and unpredictability in his site-specific work reflects his adherence to the principles of feng shui and Chinese medicine, which promote adaption to the flow of energy and nature's course.

Footprints of History: Fireworks Project for the Opening Ceremony of the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games. (Hiro Ihara/Cai Studio)

Fallen Blossoms: Explosion Project, realized at the Philadelphia Museum of Art, 2009. (Lonnie Graham/The Fabric Workshop and Museum)

Sketch of Chaos in Nature, pencil on paper, 2012. ( Cai Studio)

Cai Guo-Qiang sprinkling gunpowder onto canvas to create Chaos in Nature, Los Angeles, 2012. (Joshua White/The Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles)

Cai Guo-Qiag, Chaos in Nature, 2012, gunpowder on canvas, mounted on wood as eight-panel screen, commissioned by The Museum of Contemporary Art (MOCA), Los Angeles. (Joshua White/The Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angele)

Ignition of Desire for Zero Gravity, Los Angeles, 2012. (Joshua White/The Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles)

Sketch of Desire for Zero Gravity, pencil on paper, 2012. ( Cai Studio)

Desire for Zero Gravity, Los Angeles, 2012. ( Joshua White/The Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles)

Cai Guo-Qiang in front of Desire for Zero Gravity, Los Angeles, 2012. (Joshua White/The Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles)

To see firsthand Qiang's exhibition Sky Ladder from April 8-July 30 visit The Museum of Contemporary Art in Los Angeles, CA.


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Different Types of Advertising: Traditional, Modern, and Futuristic

Public service advertising is a technique that makes use of advertising as an effective communication medium, to convey socially relevant messages about important matters and social causes like AIDS, energy conservation, political integrity, deforestation, illiteracy, poverty, and so on. David Ogilvy once said, "Advertising justifies its existence when used in the public interest - it is much too powerful a tool to use solely for commercial purposes."

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How to install a DStv satellite dish, in doing this effectively, certain rules need to be observed.

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